Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Health Communication Activities

Article #3: Quick Guide to Health Literacy

Ths Guide contains:

These tools can be applied to healthcare delivery, policy, administration, communication, and education activities aimed at the public. They also can be incorporated into mission, planning, and evaluation at the organizational level.

If you are new to health literacy, the toolkit will give you the information you need to become an effective advocate for improved health literacy. If you are already familiar with the topic, you will find user-friendly, action-oriented materials that can be easily referenced, reproduced, and shared with colleagues.

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How to use the Quick Guide

The guide is designed to be a quick and easy reference, filled with facts, definitions, helpful tips, checklists, and resources you can use on the job. You can print out the materials and keep them at your desk, share them with colleagues, or bookmark this Web page on your computer.

The Quick Guide is divided into the following three sections:

  1. The first section contains a series of fact sheets on health literacy, including a basic overview of key concepts and definitions and information on health literacy and health outcomes.

  2. The second section contains practical strategies for improving health literacy. These include:
  1. The final section contains a list of resources, including Web sites, research studies, and additional publications on health literacy.





 Health Literacy Basics

What is health literacy?

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.1

Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors:

  • Communication skills of lay persons and professionals

  • Lay and professional knowledge of health topics

  • Culture

  • Demands of the healthcare and public health systems

  • Demands of the situation/context

Health literacy affects people's ability to:

  • Navigate the healthcare system, including filling out complex forms and locating providers and services

  • Share personal information, such as health history, with providers

  • Engage in self-care and chronic-disease management

  • Understand mathematical concepts such as probability and risk

Health literacy includes numeracy skills. For example, calculating cholesterol and blood sugar levels, measuring medications, and understanding nutrition labels all require math skills. Choosing between health plans or comparing prescription drug coverage requires calculating premiums, copays, and deductibles.

In addition to basic literacy skills, health literacy requires knowledge of health topics. People with limited health literacy often lack knowledge or have misinformation about the body as well as the nature and causes of disease. Without this knowledge, they may not understand the relationship between lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise and various health outcomes.

Health information can overwhelm even persons with advanced literacy skills. Medical science progresses rapidly. What people may have learned about health or biology during their school years often becomes outdated or forgotten, or it is incomplete. Moreover, health information provided in a stressful or unfamiliar situation is unlikely to be retained.

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What is literacy?

Literacy can be defined as a person's ability to read, write, speak, and compute and solve problems at levels necessary to:

  • Function on the job and in society
  • Achieve one's goals
  • Develop one's knowledge and potential2

The term “illiteracy” means being unable to read or write. A person who has limited or low literacy skills is not illiterate.

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What is plain language?

Plain language is a strategy for making written and oral information easier to understand. It is one important tool for improving health literacy.

Plain language is communication that users can understand the first time they read or hear it. With reasonable time and effort, a plain language document is one in which people can find what they need, understand what they find, and act appropriately on that understanding.3

Key elements of plain language include:

  • Organizing information so that the most important points come first
  • Breaking complex information into understandable chunks
  • Using simple language and defining technical terms
  • Using the active voice

Language that is plain to one set of readers may not be plain to others.3 It is critical to know your audience and have them test your materials before, during, and after they are developed.

Speaking plainly is just as important as writing plainly. Many plain language techniques apply to verbal messages, such as avoiding jargon and explaining technical or medical terms.

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What is cultural and linguistic competency?

Culture affects how people communicate, understand, and respond to health information. Cultural and linguistic competency of health professionals can contribute to health literacy. Cultural competence is the ability of health organizations and practitioners to recognize the cultural beliefs, values, attitudes, traditions, language preferences, and health practices of diverse populations, and to apply that knowledge to produce a positive health outcome.4 Competency includes communicating in a manner that is linguistically and culturally appropriate.5

Healthcare professionals have their own culture and language. Many adopt the “culture of medicine” and the language of their specialty as a result of their training and work environment. This can affect how health professionals communicate with the public.

For many individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP), the inability to communicate in English is the primary barrier to accessing health information and services. Health information for people with LEP needs to be communicated plainly in their primary language, using words and examples that make the information understandable.

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Why is health literacy important?

Only 12 percent of adults have Proficient health literacy, according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy.  In other words, nearly nine out of ten adults may lack the skills needed to manage their health and prevent disease.  Fourteen percent of adults (30 million people) have Below Basic health literacy.  These adults were more likely to report their health as poor (42 percent) and are more likely to lack health insurance (28 percent) than adults with Proficient health literacy.6

Low literacy has been linked to poor health outcomes such as higher rates of hospitalization and less frequent use of preventive services (see Fact Sheet: Health Literacy and Health Outcomes). Both of these outcomes are associated with higher healthcare costs.

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Who is at risk?

Populations most likely to experience low health literacy are older adults, racial and ethnic minorities, people with less than a high school degree or GED certificate, people with low income levels, non-native speakers of English, and people with compromised health status.7 Education, language, culture, access to resources, and age are all factors that affect a person's health literacy skills.

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Who is responsible for improving health literacy?

The primary responsibility for improving health literacy lies with public health professionals and the healthcare and public health systems. We must work together to ensure that health information and services can be understood and used by all Americans. We must engage in skill building with healthcare consumers and health professionals. Adult educators can be productive partners in reaching adults with limited literacy skills.

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1U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Originally developed for Ratzan SC, Parker RM. 2000. Introduction. In National Library of Medicine Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Health Literacy. Selden CR, Zorn M, Ratzan SC, Parker RM, Editors. NLM Pub. No. CBM 2000-1. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

2Public Law 102-73. The National Literacy Act of 1991.

3Plain Language Action and Information Network. What Is Plain Language? Available at Accessed on October 21, 2005.

4U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2001. National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care. Washington, DC: Office of Minority Health.

5McKinney J, Kurtz-Rossi S. 2000. Culture, Health, and Literacy: A Guide to Health Education Materials for Adults With Limited English Skills. Boston, MA: World Education.

6Kirsch IS, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, Kolstad A. 1993. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

7National Center for Education Statistics. 2006. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results From the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

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 Health Literacy Basics

Choosing a healthy lifestyle, knowing how to seek medical care, and taking advantage of preventive measures require that people understand and use health information. The ability to obtain, process, and understand health information needed to make informed health decisions is known as health literacy.

Given the complexity of the healthcare system, it is not surprising that limited health literacy is associated with poor health. This fact sheet summarizes key research study findings on the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes.

Use of preventive services

According to research studies, persons with limited health literacy skills are more likely to skip important preventive measures such as mammograms, Pap smears, and flu shots.1 When compared to those with adequate health literacy skills, studies have shown that patients with limited health literacy skills enter the healthcare system when they are sicker.2

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Knowledge about medical conditions and treatment

Persons with limited health literacy skills are more likely to have chronic conditions and are less able to manage them effectively. Studies have found that patients with high blood pressure,3 diabetes,3-5 asthma,6 or HIV/AIDS7-9 who have limited health literacy skills have less knowledge of their illness and its management.

Rates of hospitalization

Limited health literacy skills are associated with an increase in preventable hospital visits and admissions.10-13 Studies have demonstrated a higher rate of hospitalization and use of emergency services among patients with limited literacy skills.12

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Health status

Studies demonstrate that persons with limited health literacy skills are significantly more likely than persons with adequate health literacy skills to report their health as poor.10, 12 14

Healthcare costs

Persons with limited health literacy skills make greater use of services designed to treat complications of disease and less use of services designed to prevent complications.1, 11-13 Studies demonstrate a higher rate of hospitalization and use of emergency services among patients with limited health literacy skills.10-13 This higher use is associated with higher healthcare costs.15 16,

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Stigma and shame

Low health literacy may also have negative psychological effects. One study found that those with limited health literacy skills reported a sense of shame about their skill level.17 As a result, they may hide reading or vocabulary difficulties to maintain their dignity.18

About the research

In producing this fact sheet, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion relied extensively on both the Institute of Medicine (2004) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2004) reports, which include comprehensive reviews of the literature on health literacy and health outcomes. For your convenience, the original studies are cited.

In these studies, health literacy was measured by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy (REALM) or Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Both the IOM and AHRQ reports conclude that REALM and TOFHLA are assessments of reading ability, and as such are inadequate measures of health literacy.

Persons with limited health literacy were compared to those with adequate health literacy. Although an increasing number of studies have linked limited health literacy to poor health, the causal relationship between health literacy and health is unknown.

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1Scott TL, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, Baker DW. 2002. Health literacy and preventive health care use among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Medical Care. 40(5): 395-404.

2Bennet CL, Ferreira MR, Davis TC, Kaplan J, Weinberger M, Kuzel T, Seday MA, Sartor O. 1998. Relation between literacy, race, and stage of presentation among low-income patients with prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 16(9): 3101-3104.

3Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. 1998. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Archives of Internal Medicine. 158(2): 166-172.

4Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, Wang F, Osmond D, Daher C, Palacios J, Sullivan G, Bindman AB. 2002. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 288(4): 475-482.

5Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Wang F, Wilson C, Daher C, Leong-Grotz K, Castro C, Bindman AB. 2003. Closing the loop: Physician communication with diabetic patients who have low health literacy. Archives of Internal Medicine. 163(1): 83-90.

6Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, Lee TM, Nowlan A. 1998. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest. 114(4): 1008-1015.

7Kalichman SC, Ramachandran BB, Catz SP. 1999. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapies in HIV patients of low health literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 14(5): 267-273.

8Kalichman SC, Rompa D. 2000. Functional health literacy is associated with health status and health-related knowledge in people living with HIV-AIDS. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. 25(4): 337-344.

9Kalichman SC, Benotsch E, Suarez T, Catz S, Miller J, Rompa D. 2000. Health literacy and health-related knowledge among persons living with HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 18(4): 325-331.

10Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS. 1997. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. American Journal of Public Health. 87(6): 1027-1030.

11Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS. 1998. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 13(12): 791-798.

12Baker DW, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, Scott T, Parker RM, Green D, Ren J, Peel J. 2002. Functional health literacy and the risk of hospital admission among Medicare managed care enrollees. American Journal of Public Health. 92(8): 1278-1283.

13Gordon MM, Hampson R, Capell HA, Madhok R. 2002. Illiteracy in rheumatoid arthritis patients as determined by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy (REALM) score. Rheumatology. 41(7): 750-754.

14National Center for Education Statistics. 2006.  The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

15Friedland R. 1998. New estimates of the high costs of inadequate health literacy. In: Proceedings of Pfizer Conference “Promoting Health Literacy: A Call to Action.” October 7-8, 1998, Washington, DC: Pfizer, Inc., 6-10.

16Howard DH, Gazmararian J, Parker RM. 2005. The impact of low health literacy on the medical costs of Medicare managed care enrollees. The American Journal of Medicine, 118, 371-377.

17Parikh NS, Parker RM, Nurss JR, Baker DW, Williams MV. 1996. Shame and health literacy: The unspoken connection. Patient Education and Counseling. 27(1): 33-39.

18Baker DW, Parker MR, Williams MV, Ptikin K, Parikh NS, Coates W, Imara M. 1996. The health care experience of patients with low literacy. Archives of Family Medicine, 5(6): 329-334.


 Improve the Usability of Health Information

Consider the following questions as you develop and deliver health information:

  • Is the information appropriate for the users?
  • Is the information easy to use?
  • Are you speaking clearly and listening carefully?

  Is the information appropriate for the users?

The information below is a summary of best practices in health communication that can aid in improving health literacy. Many of these concepts are discussed in depth in the National Cancer Institute's Making Health Communication Programs Work (a.k.a. the “Pink Book”) and in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's tool CDCynergy.

Identify the intended users of the health information and services.

These principles also apply if you are using existing resources. Be sure to select materials that are accurate and appropriate for the intended users.
Identify the intended users based on epidemiology (who is affected?), demographics, behavior, culture, and attitude. This is known as segmentation.

Be sure the materials and messages reflect the age, social and cultural diversity, language, and literacy skills of the intended users. Consider economic contexts, access to services, and life experiences.1

Beyond demographics, culture, and language, consider the communication capacities of the intended users. Approximately one in six Americans has a communication disorder or difference resulting in unique challenges.2 These individuals will require communication strategies that are tailored to their needs and abilities.

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Evaluate users' understanding before, during, and after the introduction of information and services.

Talk to members of the intended user group before you design your communication intervention to determine what information they need to know and how they will use it. Then, pretest messages and services to get feedback.

Test your messages again, after they have been introduced, to assess effectiveness. Refine content when necessary. Use a post-test to evaluate the effectiveness of the information.

Acknowledge cultural differences and practice respect.

Cultural factors include race, ethnicity, language, nationality, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, income level, and occupation. Some examples of attitudes and values that are interrelated with culture include:

  • Accepted roles of men and women

  • Value of traditional medicine versus Western medicine

  • Favorite and forbidden foods

  • Manner of dress

  • Body language, particularly whether touching or proximity is permitted in specific situations1

Ensure that health information is relevant to the intended users' social and cultural contexts.

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   Is the information easy to use?

Limit the number of messages, use plain language, and focus on action.3, 4

Keep it simple. The number of messages will depend on the information needs of the intended users. As a general guideline, use no more than four main messages. Give the user specific actions and recommendations. Clearly state the actions you want the person to take. Focus on behavior rather than the underlying medical principles.

Use familiar language and an active voice. Avoid long or run-on sentences. Organize similar information into several smaller groups.

Many of the same plain language techniques that make the written word understandable also work with verbal messages, such as avoiding jargon and using everyday examples to explain technical or medical terms the first time they are used.

For more information on plain language, visit

Supplement instructions with pictures.

Individual learning styles differ. For many people, visuals are a preferred style, especially for technical information.3 Simple line drawings can help users understand complicated or abstract medical concepts. Make sure to place images in context. When illustrating internal body parts, for example, include the outside of the body.

For print communication, use captions or cues to point out key information.3 Show the main message on the front of the materials.
Use visuals that help convey your message. (Don't just “decorate,” as this will distract users.) Make visuals culturally relevant and use images that are familiar to your audience.

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Make written communication look easy to read.3-5

Use at least 12-point font. Avoid using all capital letters, italics, and fancy script. Keep line length between 40 and 50 characters. Use headings and bullets to break up text. Be sure to leave plenty of white space around the margins and between sections.

Improve the usability of information on the Internet.

Refer to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Policies for Federal Public Websites for further guidance.
Studies show that people cannot find the information they seek on Web sites about 60 percent of the time.6 This percentage may be significantly higher for persons with limited literacy skills.

Many of the elements that improve written and oral communication can be applied to online information, including using plain language, large font, white space, and simple graphics.7 Other elements are specific to the Internet. These include:

  • Enhancing text with video or audio files

  • Including interactive features and personalized content

  • Using uniform navigation

  • Organizing information to minimize searching and scrolling6

  • Giving users the option to navigate from simple to complex information

A critical way to make information on the Internet more accessible to persons with limited literacy and health literacy skills is to apply user-centered design principles and conduct usability testing.

Usability is a measure of several factors that affect a user's experience interacting with a product, such as a Web page. These factors include:
  • How fast can the user learn how to use the site?
  • How fast can the user accomplish tasks?
  • Can the user remember how to use the site the next time he or she visits?
  • How often do users make mistakes?
  • How much does the user like the site?

To learn more about usability, visit

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   Are you speaking clearly and listening carefully?

Ask open-ended questions.

Ask questions using the words “what” or “how” instead of those that can be answered with “yes” or “no.” For example, “Tell me about your problem. What may have caused it?”3 Try asking “What questions do you have?” instead of “Do you have any questions?”

Use a medically trained interpreter.

Plain English will not necessarily help individuals who do not speak English as their primary language and who have limited ability to speak or understand English. To better ensure understanding, health information for people with limited English proficiency needs to be communicated plainly in their primary language, using words and examples that make the information relevant to their potentially different cultural norms and values.

Check for understanding.

The “teach-back” method is a technique that healthcare providers and consumers can use to enhance communication with each other. The person receiving the health information is asked to restate it in their own words—not just repeat it—to ensure that the message is understood and remembered. When understanding is not accurate or complete, the sender repeats the process until the receiver is able to restate the information needed.8 Consumers also can be asked to act out a medication regimen.3


Easy-to-read flyer developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The flyer was developed in multiple languages.

Tip: Checking for understanding

Summarize what the patient needs to do. Consider using a handout or brochure written in plain language. Explain what each medication is for, along with the dosage and side effects. Make sure the patient knows where the information is written down.

Then check for understanding:

“I want to be sure I didn't leave anything out that I should have told you. Would you tell me what you are to do so that I can be sure you know what is important?”

(Source: Doak CC, Doak LG, Root JH. 1996. Teaching Patients With Low Literacy Skills. JB Lippincott Company: Philadelphia, PA.)

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Participate in plain language and cultural competency training.

Encourage colleagues to do the same. Consider organizing a training for health professionals and staff in your organization.

Checklist for Improving the Usability of Health Information

ϖ  Identify the intended users

ϖ  Use pre- and post-tests

ϖ  Limit the number of messages

ϖ  Use plain language

ϖ  Practice respect

ϖ  Focus on behavior

ϖ  Check for understanding

ϖ  Supplement with pictures

ϖ  Use a medically trained interpreter or translator

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1National Cancer Institute. Making Health Communication Programs Work. Washington, DC.

2National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Improving Health Literacy. Available at

3Doak C, Doak L, Root J. 1996. Teaching Patients With Low Literacy Skills. 2nd Edition. JB Lippincott Co.: Philadelphia, PA.

4Plain Language Action and Information Network. Available at Accessed on October 21, 2005.

5American Institute for Research. 1981. Guidelines for Document Designers. Washington, DC.

6U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Usability Basics. Available at Accessed on October 13, 2005.

7Baur CE. 2005. Using the Internet To Move Beyond the Brochure and Improve Health Literacy. In Understanding Health Literacy. Schwartzberg JG, VanGeest JB, Wang CC, Editors. AMA Press, 141-154.

8Schillinger D, Piette J, Grumbach K, Wang F, Wilson C, Daher C, Leong-Grotz K, Castro C, Bindman AB. 2003. Closing the loop: Physician communication with diabetic patients who have low health literacy. Archives of Internal Medicine. 163(1): 83-90.

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 To Learn More About Health Literacy

Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion
Released in 2004 by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), this report examines the body of knowledge that applies to the field of health literacy and recommends actions to promote a health-literate society.
Available at: EXIT Disclaimer

Healthy People 2010
Healthy People 2010 is a comprehensive set of disease prevention and health promotion objectives developed to improve the health of the nation. Objectives 11-2 and 11-6 specifically address health literacy.
Available at:

The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL)
This report is the first release of the NAAL health literacy results.  The results are based on assessment tasks designed specifically to measure the health literacy of adults living in the United States.  Health literacy was reported using four performance levels: Below Basic, Basic, Intermediate and Proficient.
Available at:

Communicating Health: Priorities and Strategies for Progress
This publication provides in-depth action plans for each of the six Healthy People 2010 Health Communication Objectives, including Objectives 11-2 and 11-6 on health literacy.
Available at:

Literacy and Health Outcomes
This report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) provides a systematic review of the literature on literacy, its relationship to various health outcomes and disparities, and the effectiveness of health literacy interventions.
Available at:

Bibliography Understanding Health Literacy and Its Barriers
The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) bibliography provides a comprehensive list of health literacy citations from varying disciplines and publications. The bibliography is divided into specific topic areas.
Available at:

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To learn more about improving the usability of health information:

Scientific and Technical Information: Simply Put
This guide from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will help you translate complicated scientific and technical information into material that captures and keeps the interest of your intended audience.
Available at:

CDCynergy (CD-ROM)

A multimedia CD-ROM used for planning, managing, and evaluating public health communication programs. The planning model is designed to guide the user through systematically conceptualizing, planning, developing, testing, implementing, and evaluating health communication activities, while promoting accountability and the importance of evaluation.
Available at:

Making Health Communication Programs Work (the “Pink Book”)
The planning steps in this guide from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) can help make any communication program work, regardless of size, topic, intended audience, or budget. The Pink Book describes a practical approach for planning and implementing health communication efforts.
Available at:
Designed to improve communication from the Federal Government to the public, this Web site contains excellent tools and examples of plain language.

A Family Physician's Practical Guide to Culturally Competent Care
This guide, developed by the Office of Minority Health (OMH), includes cultural competency curriculum modules designed to equip family physicians with awareness, knowledge, and skills in cultural competency to better treat the increasingly diverse U.S. population.
Available at: EXIT Disclaimer

National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care
OMH has developed comprehensive standards on culturally and linguistically appropriate services (CLAS) in health care. The CLAS standards provide definitions of culturally and linguistically appropriate services and address organizational structures and policies that help healthcare professionals respond to cultural and linguistic issues presented by diverse populations.
Available at:

Policies for Federal Public Websites
The Office of Management and Budget issued the Policies for Federal Public Websites in 2004. The policies are designed to improve the usability of Federal Web sites.
Available at:

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A resource for usable, useful, and accessible Web sites. This site contains information, guidelines, and checklists for conducting usability testing and user-centered design.

To learn more about improving the usability of health services:

Improving Patient Safety Through Informed Consent for Patients With Limited Health Literacy
This report, from the National Quality Forum, is designed to provide an overview of major issues involved in providing informed consent for all patients, particularly those with limited health literacy.
Available at: EXIT Disclaimer

Understanding Health Literacy
This comprehensive resource of health literacy research seeks to improve understanding of this public health challenge and to stimulate research focused on reducing or eliminating the literacy barrier to effective medical diagnosis and treatment. The book includes a chapter on the literacy demands of healthcare settings.
Citation: Schwartzberg JG, VanGeest JB, Wang CC, Editors. Understanding Health Literacy. AMA Press. 2005.

To learn more about building knowledge to improve health decisionmaking:

Consumers in Health Care: The Burden of Choice
This report by the California HealthCare Foundation presents the latest research on consumer decisionmaking, explores the methods consumers use to make choices, and looks at what influences affect consumer action. The research suggests important implications for the development of effective information tools for consumers.
Available at: EXIT Disclaimer

healthfinder® is an award-winning Federal Web site for consumers, developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and other Federal agencies. Since 1997, healthfinder® has been recognized as a key resource for finding the best government and nonprofit health and human services information on the Internet. healthfinder® links to carefully selected information and Web sites from more than 1,500 health-related organizations.
Available at:

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